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SILVER TREVALLIES (2018)

Pseudocaranx georgianus, Pseudocaranx sp. "dentex" & Pseudocaranx wrighti, Pseudocaranx dinjerra

  • Ashley Fowler (Department of Primary Industries, New South Wales)
  • Rowan Chick (Department of Primary Industries, New South Wales)
  • Bradley Moore (Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania)
  • David Fairclough (Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development, Western Australia)
  • Brent Womersley (Victorian Fisheries Authority)
  • Lee Georgeson (Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Sciences)
  • Luke Albury (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Queensland)
  • Paul Rogers (South Australian Research and Development Institute)

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Summary

Silver Trevally inhabits estuarine and coastal waters throughout southern temperate Australia. Of the seven separate Australian stocks, five (in WA, SA, VIC, TAS and the Commonwealth) are sustainable. The NSW stock is depleting and the QLD stock is undefined.  

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Stock Status Overview

Stock status determination
Jurisdiction Stock Fisheries Stock status Indicators
Victoria Victoria CIF, GLF, OF, OPSF, PPBWPF, ITF Sustainable Catch, effort, CPUE
CIF
Corner Inlet Fishery (VIC)
GLF
Gippsland Lakes Fishery (VIC)
ITF
Inshore Trawl Fishery (VIC)
OF
Ocean Fishery (VIC)
OPSF
Ocean Purse Seine Fishery (VIC)
PPBWPF
Port Phillip Bay and Western Port Bay Fishery (VIC)
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Stock Structure

Silver Trevallies comprises a complex of species that inhabits estuarine and coastal waters (depths of 10–230 m) throughout southern temperate Australia, from southern Queensland, south through New South Wales, Tasmania, Victoria, South Australia and southern and central Western Australia [Smith-Vaniz and Jelks 2006].

The biological stock structure of Silver Trevallies is uncertain. Fisheries are based on a species complex that varies by region, with Pseudocaranx georgianus present in all jurisdictions except Queensland, P. wrighti present in all jurisdictions except Queensland and New South Wales, P. dinjerra only present in Western Australia, and P. sp. ‘dentex’ only present in Queensland [Smith-Vaniz and Jelks 2006, Gomon et al. 2008]. There have been no investigations of potential genetic structure within these species. Investigations of population connectivity and post-settlement movement are also limited. Despite fast swimming ability, tag-recapture studies in Western Australia, New South Wales and New Zealand indicate restricted post-settlement movement of P. georgianus, potentially leading to ecological stock structuring over moderate (hundreds of kilometres) spatial scales [James 1980, Fairclough et al. 2011, Fowler et al. 2018].

Here, assessment of stock status is presented at the jurisdictional level—Commonwealth, Western Australia, Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania and South Australia.

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Stock Status

Victoria

In Victoria, haul seines predominantly accounted for 99 per cent of Silver Trevallies caught in the Gippsland Lakes Fishery (GLF), 78 per cent in the Corner Inlet Fishery (CIF) and 99 per cent in the Port Phillip Bay and Western Port Fishery (PPBWPF) [Conron 2016a, Conron 2016b]. They were also caught by trawl in the Ocean Fishery (OF). Since 2000, total commercial catch ranged from 22 t to 84 t. During 2017, 55 t was landed with 58 per cent and 23 per cent taken from CIF and GLF respectively.

For the CIF, Silver Trevallies catch declined from 46 t in 2001 to 13 t in 2015 and then increased to 32.4 t in 2017. Average catch rates using haul seine are highly variable [Conron et al 2016b] ranging from around 5–22 kg per shot (individual haul) with catch rates showing an increasing trend since 2015 [VFA unpublished data]. Catch rate in 2017 was 12.8 kg per shot which is above the long-term average catch [VFA unpublished data]. For the GLF, Silver Trevallies catch declined from 29 t in 2005 to 3.6 t in 2014. Catch in 2017 was 12.8 t which was more than twice the catch attained in the previous five years [VFA unpublished data]. Catch rates have historically been highly variable but in recent years have declined from 93 kg per shot (2005) to a historic low of 4.9 kg per shot (2008); however, catch rates have increased to 58 kg per shot in 2017 [VFA unpublished data]. Commercial netting is being phased out in Port Phillip Bay. Since 2016, 34 of the 43 licenses have been bought out by the Victorian government. This has significantly reduced commercial effort for Silver Trevallies. Commercial catch of 6.4 t in 2016 was reduced to 2.5 t in 2017 in Port Phillip Bay and Western Port. Commercial net fishing in Port Phillip Bay will cease by 2022 and has already ceased in Corio Bay.

Silver Trevallies are also a target species for recreational fishers in Victoria, where they are commonly taken from the shore and from boats; however, there are no estimates of the current recreational catch [Conron et al 2016a].

On the basis of the evidence provided above, Silver Trevallies in Victoria is classified as a sustainable stock.

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Biology

Silver Trevallies biology [Rowling and Raines 2000]

Biology
Species Longevity / Maximum Size Maturity (50 per cent)
Silver Trevally 13–18 years, 690–938 mm TL 190–200 mm TL 
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Distributions

Distribution of reported commercial catch of Silver Trevallies

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Tables

Fishing methods
Victoria
Commercial
Hook and Line
Net
Recreational
Hook and Line
Management methods
Method Victoria
Commercial
Fishing gear and method restrictions
Limited entry
Size limit
Spatial closures
Indigenous
Customary fishing permits
Recreational
Bag limits
Licence
Possession limit
Size limit
Spatial closures
Active vessels
Victoria
17 in CIF, 10 in GLF, 6 in ITF, 7 in OF, 1 in OPSF, 5 in PPBWPF
CIF
Corner Inlet Fishery (VIC)
GLF
Gippsland Lakes Fishery (VIC)
ITF
Inshore Trawl Fishery (VIC)
OF
Ocean Fishery (VIC)
OPSF
Ocean Purse Seine Fishery (VIC)
PPBWPF
Port Phillip Bay and Western Port Bay Fishery (VIC)
Catch
Victoria
Commercial 32.44t in CIF, 12.82t in GLF, 114.70kg in ITF, 7.15t in OF, 2.53t in PPBWPF
Indigenous Unknown (No catch under permit)
Recreational 37 t (2003)
CIF
Corner Inlet Fishery (VIC)
GLF
Gippsland Lakes Fishery (VIC)
ITF
Inshore Trawl Fishery (VIC)
OF
Ocean Fishery (VIC)
PPBWPF
Port Phillip Bay and Western Port Bay Fishery (VIC)

Commonwealth – Recreational The Australian Government does not manage recreational fishing in Commonwealth waters. Recreational fishing in Commonwealth waters is managed by the state or territory immediately adjacent to those waters, under its management regulations. Commonwealth – Indigenous The Australian Government does not manage non-commercial Indigenous fishing in Commonwealth waters, with the exception of the Torres Strait. In general, non-commercial Indigenous fishing in Commonwealth waters is managed by the state or territory immediately adjacent to those waters. Western Australia – Recreational (management methods) In Western Australia, a licence is required to recreationally fish from a powered vessel.

Western Australia – Recreational (Catch) Shore based catches are unknown, thus landings would be underestimated.

Queensland – Indigenous (management methods) In Queensland, under the Fisheries Act 1994 (Qld), Indigenous fishers are able to use prescribed traditional and non-commercial fishing apparatus in waters open to fishing. Size and possession limits, and seasonal closures do not apply to Indigenous fishers. Further exemptions to fishery regulations may be applied for through permits.

New South Wales – Indigenous (a) The Aboriginal Cultural Fishing Interim Access Arrangement allows an Indigenous fisher in New South Wales to take in excess of a recreational bag limit in certain circumstances—for example, if they are doing so to provide fish to other community members who cannot harvest themselves; (b) The Aboriginal cultural fishing authority is the authority that Indigenous persons can apply to take catches outside the recreational limits under the Fisheries Management Act 1994 (NSW), Section 37 (1d)(3)(9), Aboriginal cultural fishing authority; and (c) In cases where the Native Title Act 1993 (Cth) applies fishing activity can be undertaken by the person holding native title in line with S.211 of that Act, which provides for fishing activities for the purpose of satisfying their personal, domestic or non-commercial communal needs. In managing the resource where native title has been formally recognised, the native title holders are engaged with to ensure their native title rights are respected and inform management of the State's fisheries resources.

Victoria – Indigenous

In Victoria, regulations for managing recreational fishing may not apply to fishing activities by Indigenous people. Victorian traditional owners may have rights under the Commonwealth's Native Title Act 1993 to hunt, fish, gather and conduct other cultural activities for their personal, domestic or non-commercial communal needs without the need to obtain a licence. Traditional Owners that have agreements under the Traditional Owner Settlement Act 2010 (Vic) may also be authorised to fish without the requirement to hold a recreational fishing licence. Outside of these arrangements, Indigenous Victorians can apply for permits under the Fisheries Act 1995 (Vic) that authorise fishing for specific indigenous cultural ceremonies or events (for example, different catch and size limits or equipment). There were no Indigenous permits granted in 2017 and hence no Indigenous catch recorded.

Tasmania – Recreational (management methods) In Tasmania, a recreational licence is required for fishers using dropline or longline gear, along with nets, such as gillnet or beach seine. The species is subject to a minimum size of 20 cm in Tasmanian waters. A bag limit of 10 individuals and a possession limit of 20 individuals is in place for recreational fishers.

Tasmania – Indigenous (management methods) In Tasmania, Indigenous persons engaged in aboriginal fishing activities in marine waters are exempt from holding recreational fishing licences, but must comply with all other fisheries rules as if they were licensed. Additionally, recreational bag and possession limits also apply. If using pots, rings, set lines or gillnets, Indigenous fishers must obtain a unique identifying code (UIC). The policy document Recognition of Aboriginal Fishing Activities for issuing a UIC to a person for Aboriginal Fishing activity explains the steps to take in making an application for a UIC.

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Catch Chart

Commercial catch of Silver Trevallies - note confidential catch not shown

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References

  1. Conron, S, Giri, K, Hamer, P and Hall, K 2016, Gippsland Lakes Fishery Assessment 2016, Fisheries Victoria Science Report Series No. 14. The Department of Economic Development, Jobs, Transport and Resources, Melbourne.
  2. Conron, S, Green, C, Hamer, P, Giri, K and Hall, K 2016, Corner Inlet- Nooramunga Fishery Assessment 2016, Fisheries Victoria Science Report Series No. 11. The Department of Economic Development, Jobs, Transport and Resources, Melbourne.
  3. Fairclough, D, Walters, S, Holtz, M 2018, West Coast Demersal Scalefish Resource Status Report 2017. In Status reports of the fisheries and aquatic resources of Western Australia 2016/17: The state of the fisheries, eds DJ Gaughan and K Santoro. Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development, Western Australia, pp. 60–65.
  4. Fairclough, DV, Potter, IC, Lek, E, Bivoltsis, AK and Babcock, RC 2011, The fish communities and main fish populations of the Jurien Bay Marine Park, Centre for Fish and Fisheries Research, Murdoch University, Perth.
  5. Fowler, AM, Chick, RC, Stewart, J 2018, Patterns and drivers of movement for a coastal benthopelagic fish, Pseudocaranx georgianus, on Australia’s southeast coast. Scientific Reports, 8(1), 16738.
  6. Gaughan, DJ and Santoro, K (eds.) 2018, Status Reports of the Fisheries and Aquatic Resources of Western Australia 2016/17: The State of the Fisheries. Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development, Western Australia, Perth, Australia. 237p.
  7. Giri, K and Hall, K 2015, South Australian Recreational Fishing Survey. Fisheries Victoria Internal Report Series No. 62. 75 pp.
  8. Gomon, MF, Bray, DJ and Kuiter, RH (Eds.) 2008, Fishes of Australia's Southern Coast, Reed New Holland, Sydney.
  9. Haddon, M 2013, Tier 4 analyses in the SESSF, including deep water species: data from 1986–2012. CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Hobart.
  10. Haddon, M and Punt, A 2018, SimpleSA: A package containing functions to facilitate relatively simple stock assessments. R package version 0.1.10
  11. Haddon, M and Sporcic, M 2017, Tier 4 Assessments for selected SESSF Species (data to 2016). CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere, Hobart. 52 p.)
  12. James, GD 1980, Tagging experiments on trawl-caught trevally, Caranx georgianus, off north-east New Zealand, 1973–79, New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 14:249–254.
  13. Liggins, GW 1996, The interaction between fish trawling (in NSW) and other commercial and recreational fisheries, Final Report to Fisheries Research and Development Corporation, FRDC Project No. 92/79, NSW Fisheries Research Institute, Cronulla.
  14. Lyle, JM, Stark, KE and Tracey, SR 2014, 2012–13 survey of recreational fishing in Tasmania. IMAS, Hobart.
  15. Morison AK, Knuckey IA, Simpfendorfer CA and Buckworth RC 2013, South East Scalefish and Shark Fishery: draft 2012 stock assessment summaries for species assessed by GABRAG, ShelfRAG and Slope/DeepRAG. Report for AFMA, Canberra.
  16. Rogers, P.J, Tsolos, A, Boyle, M and Steer, M 2017, Data summary South Australian Charter Boat Fishery. Final Report to PIRSA Fisheries and Aquaculture. 25 pp.
  17. Rowling, KR and Raines, LP 2000, Description of the biology and an assessment of the fishery for silver trevally Pseudocaranx dentex off New South Wales, Final Report to Fisheries Research and Development Corporation, Project 97/125, NSW Fisheries Final Report Series No. 24, NSW Fisheries, Cronulla.
  18. Ryan, KL, Hall, NG, Lai, EK, Smallwood, CB, Taylor, SM and Wise, BS 2017, Statewide survey of boat-based recreational fishing in Western Australia 2015/16, Fisheries Research Report No. 287. Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development, Western Australia.
  19. ShelfRAG 2013, Southern and Eastern Scalefish and Shark Fishery Shelf Resource Assessment Group (ShelfRAG), minutes, 25–27 September 2013, Tasmania. ShelfRAG, Australian Fisheries Management Authority, Canberra.
  20. Smith-Vaniz, WF and Jelks, HL 2006, Australian trevallies of the genus Pseudocaranx (Teleostei: Carangidae), with description of a new species from Western Australia, Memoirs of Museum Victoria, 63:97–106.
  21. Steer, MA, Fowler, A J, McGarvey, R, Feenstra, J, Westlake, EJ, Matthews, D, Drew, M, Rogers, PJ and Earl, J 2018, Assessment of the South Australian Marine Scalefish Fishery in 2016. SARDI Research Report Series. SARDI Publication No. F2017/000427-1. 250 pp.
  22. Stewart, J, Hegarty, A, Young, C, Fowler, AM and Craig, J 2015, Status of Fisheries Resources in NSW 2013-14, NSW Department of Primary Industries, Mosman.
  23. Thomson, R, Fuller, M, Deng, R and Althaus, F 2016, Data summary for the Southern and Eastern Scalefish and Shark Fishery: Logbook, Landings and Observer Data to 2015 (DRAFT).
  24. Webley, J, McInnes, K, Teixeira, D, Lawson, A and Quinn, R 2015, Statewide Recreational Fishing Survey 2013-14. Queensland Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Brisbane.
  25. West, LD, Stark, KE, Murphy, JJ, Lyle, JM and Ochwada-Doyle, FA 2015, Survey of recreational fishing in New South Wales and the ACT, 2013/14, Fisheries Final Report Series, No. 149, NSW Department of Primary Industries.

Downloadable reports

Click the links below to view reports from other years for this fish.