*

Tailor (2018)

Pomatomus saltatrix

  • Lenore Litherland (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Queensland)
  • Kylie Hall (Victorian Fisheries Authority)
  • John Stewart (Department of Primary Industries, New South Wales)
  • Kim Smith (Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development, Western Australia)

You are currently viewing a report filtered by jurisdiction. View the full report.

Toggle content

Summary

An inshore and estuarine species, Tailor has biologically independent stocks on the east and west coasts of Australia. Both stocks are sustainable. The western stock is found only in WA. The eastern stock is found in QLD, NSW and VIC.

Toggle content

Stock Status Overview

Stock status determination
Jurisdiction Stock Fisheries Stock status Indicators
Western Australia Western Australia GDSMF, SBBSMNMF, SCEMF, SWCBNF, WCDSIMF, WCEMF, WL (SC) Sustainable Catch, CPUE, recruitment index
GDSMF
Gascoyne Demersal Scalefish Managed Fishery (WA)
SBBSMNMF
Shark Bay Beach Seine and Mesh Net Managed Fishery (WA)
SCEMF
South Coast Estuarine Managed Fishery (WA)
SWCBNF
South West Coast Beach Net Fishery (Order) (WA)
WCDSIMF
West Coast Demersal Scalefish (Interim) Managed Fishery (WA)
WCEMF
West Coast Estuarine Managed Fishery (WA)
WL (SC)
Open Access in the South Coast (WA)
Toggle content

Stock Structure

Tailor are a wide ranging species with several separate stocks found in temperate and sub-tropical waters around the world. Genetic evidence indicates that there are two biological stocks of Tailor in Australia, one along the east coast and a second along the west coast [Nurthen et al. 1992]. The Eastern Australian biological stock is distributed from Bundaberg in southern Queensland along the entire New South Wales coast and into eastern Bass Strait in Victoria [Brodie et al. 2018, Miskiewicz et al. 1996]. The Western Australian biological stock is distributed along the western coastline of Australia from Exmouth to Esperance [Lenanton et al. 1996, Smith et al. 2013]. Within each stock, multiple spawning groups may exist that spawn at different times and locations [Miskiewicz et al. 1996, Ward et al. 2003, Young et al. 1999]. However, several characteristics, such as the dispersal of pelagic eggs and larvae with prevailing currents, the movement of juveniles into sheltered nearshore or estuarine habitats in northern and southern areas of the species range, and the seasonal migration behaviour of adults, suggest that a genetically homogenous population occurs on each coast [Bade 1977, Brodie et al. 2018, Juanes et al. 1996, Lenanton et al. 1996, Miskiewicz et al. 1996, Ward et al. 2003, Young et al. 1999].

Here, assessment of stock status is presented at the biological stock level—Western Australia and Eastern Australia.

Toggle content

Stock Status

Western Australia

The Western Australian biological stock is accessed by one jurisdiction, Western Australia. In Western Australia, Tailor is primarily targeted by recreational fishers who take the majority of the catch [Smith et al. 2013]. In the 1980s and 1990s, there was a marked decline in average size and catch rate of Tailor caught recreationally. In response, new management measures (bag and size limits) were introduced which substantially reduced the recreational harvest [Smith et al. 2013].   

The current total recreational catch is uncertain due to lack of information about the shore-based harvest, which is larger than the boat-based harvest [Henry and Lyle 2003, Smith et al. 2013]. However, the boat-based catch is monitored regularly and has been relatively stable over the past decade [Smith et al. 2013, Ryan et al. 2017]. The boat-based catch was estimated to be around 5 t in 2015–16 [Ryan et al. 2017].  

The current commercial catch is relatively low (8 t in 2017) compared to historic levels. Most of the commercial catch is taken in the Gascoyne Coast Bioregion (GCB), with the remainder in the West Coast Bioregion (WCB) and the South Coast Bioregion (SCB). The GCB catch has been declining due to reduced targeting because of low market demand. In the WCB, most of the catch is taken in the Peel-Harvey Estuary, where the Harvest Strategy limits the annual catch to < 10.4 t [Johnston et al. 2015]. Overall, there has been a deliberate reduction in commercial and recreational catches since the 1990s.   

Recreational catches are mainly taken in the WCB. Recreational catch rates and juvenile recruitment in this region are monitored annually. The catch rate fluctuates in response to recruitment variations, which are linked to environmental factors [Smith et al. 2013, Department of Fisheries 2017]. Recruitment levels have been variable but followed a stable (non-directional) trend over the past 20 years. This evidence indicates that the stock is unlikely to be depleted and that recruitment is unlikely to be impaired. The current rate of fishing mortality is unlikely to cause the stock to become recruitment impaired. 

On the basis of the evidence provided above, the Western Australia biological stock is classified as a sustainable stock.

Toggle content

Biology

Tailor biology [Bade 1977, Juanes et al. 1996, Smith et al. 2013, Young et al. 1999]

Biology
Species Longevity / Maximum Size Maturity (50 per cent)
Tailor 11–13 years, 1200 mm TL  Eastern Australian biological stock:1–2 years, males 290 mm TL, females 310 mm TL Western Australian biological stock: 1–2 years, L50 per cent 320 mm TL
Toggle content

Distributions

Distribution of reported commercial catch of Tailor
Toggle content

Tables

Fishing methods
Western Australia
Commercial
Hand Line, Hand Reel or Powered Reels
Gillnet
Beach Seine
Haul Seine
Unspecified
Recreational
Hook and Line
Gillnet
Beach Seine
Indigenous
Traditional apparatus
Management methods
Method Western Australia
Commercial
Gear restrictions
Limited entry
Size limit
Spatial zoning
Temporal closures
Total allowable effort
Vessel restrictions
Indigenous
Gear restrictions
Size limit
Recreational
Bag limits
Licence
Limited entry (Charter only)
Passenger restrictions (Charter only)
Size limit
Spatial zoning (Charter only)
Temporal closures
Active vessels
Western Australia
3 in Charter, 3 in GDSMF, 6 in SBBSMNMF, 13 in SCEMF, 3 in SWCBNF, 4 in WCDSIMF, 9 in WCEMF, 7 in WL (NC || GC || WC), <3 in WL (SC)
Charter
Tour Operator (WA)
GDSMF
Gascoyne Demersal Scalefish Managed Fishery (WA)
SBBSMNMF
Shark Bay Beach Seine and Mesh Net Managed Fishery (WA)
SCEMF
South Coast Estuarine Managed Fishery (WA)
SWCBNF
South West Coast Beach Net Fishery (Order) (WA)
WCDSIMF
West Coast Demersal Scalefish (Interim) Managed Fishery (WA)
WCEMF
West Coast Estuarine Managed Fishery (WA)
WL (NC || GC || WC)
Open Access in the North Coast, Gascoyne Coast and West Coast Bioregions (WA)
WL (SC)
Open Access in the South Coast (WA)
Catch
Western Australia
Commercial 7.60t in GDSMF, SBBSMNMF, SCEMF, SWCBNF, WCDSIMF, WCEMF, WL (SC)
Charter 0.03 t in Tour Operator,
Indigenous Unknown
Recreational 3–8 t (in 2015–16 (boat-based only, 95 per cent confidence range) 
GDSMF
Gascoyne Demersal Scalefish Managed Fishery (WA)
SBBSMNMF
Shark Bay Beach Seine and Mesh Net Managed Fishery (WA)
SCEMF
South Coast Estuarine Managed Fishery (WA)
SWCBNF
South West Coast Beach Net Fishery (Order) (WA)
WCDSIMF
West Coast Demersal Scalefish (Interim) Managed Fishery (WA)
WCEMF
West Coast Estuarine Managed Fishery (WA)
WL (SC)
Open Access in the South Coast (WA)

Western Australia – Recreational (Catch) Current shore-based recreational catch and effort in Western Australia is unknown. Boat-based recreational catch estimated in 2015–16 [Ryan et al. 2017]

Queensland – Indigenous (Management methods) In Queensland, under the Fisheries Act 1994 (Qld), Indigenous fishers in Queensland are able to use prescribed traditional and non-commercial fishing apparatus in waters open to fishing. Size and possession limits, and seasonal closures do not apply to Indigenous fishers. Further exemptions to fishery regulations may be applied for through permits.

Victoria – Indigenous (Management methods) In Victoria, regulations for managing recreational fishing may not apply to fishing activities by Indigenous people. Victorian traditional owners may have rights under the Commonwealth's Native Title Act 1993 to hunt, fish, gather and conduct other cultural activities for their personal, domestic or non-commercial communal needs without the need to obtain a licence. Traditional Owners that have agreements under the Traditional Owner Settlement Act 2010 (Vic) may also be authorised to fish without the requirement to hold a recreational fishing licence. Outside of these arrangements, Indigenous Victorians can apply for permits under the Fisheries Act 1995 (Vic) that authorise fishing for specific Indigenous cultural ceremonies or events (for example, different catch and size limits or equipment). There were no Indigenous permits granted in 2017 and hence no Indigenous catch recorded.

New South Wales – Recreational (Catch) West et al. (2015) estimate of approximately 190 000 fish retained by NSW residents with the average weight retained [NSWDPI Unpublished data].

New South Wales – Indigenous (Management methods) (a) The Aboriginal Cultural Fishing Interim Access Arrangement allows an Indigenous fisher in New South Wales to take in excess of a recreational bag limit in certain circumstances; for example, if they are doing so to provide fish to other community members who cannot harvest for themselves, (b) The Aboriginal cultural fishing authority is the authority that Indigenous persons can apply to take catches outside the recreational limits under the Fisheries Management Act 1994 (NSW), Section 37 (1d)(3)(9), Aboriginal cultural fishing authority, and (c) In cases where the Native Title Act 1993 (Cth) applies fishing activity can be undertaken by the person holding native title in line with S.211 of that Act, which provides for fishing activities for the purpose of satisfying their personal, domestic or non-commercial communal needs. In managing the resource where native title has been formally recognised, the native title holders are engaged with to ensure their native title rights are respected and inform management of the State's fisheries resources.

Toggle content

Catch Chart

Commercial catch of Tailor - note confidential catch not shown
Toggle content

References

  1. Ayvazian, SG, Wise, BS and Young, GC 2002, Short-term hooking mortality of tailor (Pomatomus saltatrix) in Western Australia and the impact on yield per recruit, Fisheries Research, 58, 241–248.
  2. Bade, TM 1977, The biology of tailor (Pomatomus saltatrix) from the east coast of Australia, University of Queensland, University of Queensland, Brisbane.
  3. Broadhurst, MK, Butcher, PA and Cullis, BR 2012, Catch-and-release angling mortality of south-eastern Australian Pomatomus saltatrix, African Journal of Marine Science, 34, 289–295.
  4. Brodie, S, Litherland, L, Stewart, J, Schilling, HT, Pepperell, JG and Suthers, IM 2018, Citizen science records describe the distribution and migratory behaviour of a piscivorous predator, Pomatomus saltatrix, ICES Journal of Marine Science, 75, 1573–1582.
  5. Conron, S, Giri, K, Hall, K and Hamer, P 2016, Gippsland Lakes Fisheries Assessment 2016. Fisheries Victoria Science Report Series No. 14.
  6. Department of Fisheries, September 2017, Addendum to: Johnston, DJ, Smith, KA, Brown, JI, Travaille, KL, Crowe, F, Oliver, RK and Fisher, EA 2015, Western Australian Marine Stewardship Council Report Series No. 3: West Coast Estuarine Managed Fishery (Area 2: Peel-Harvey Estuary) and Peel-Harvey Estuary Blue Swimmer Crab Recreational Fishery. Department of Fisheries, Western Australia. 284pp
  7. Halliday, IA, Ley, JA, Tobin, A, Garrett, R, Gribble, NA and Mayer, DG 2001, The effects of net fishing: addressing biodiversity and bycatch issues in Queensland inshore waters (FRDC Project no. 97/206), Department of Primary Industries, Queensland.
  8. Henry, GW and Lyle, JM 2003, The National Recreational and Indigenous Fishing Survey, FRDC Project No. 99/158, Australian Government Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, Canberra.
  9. Johnston, DJ, Smith, KA, Brown, JI, Travaille, KL, Crowe, F, Oliver, RK, Fisher, EA 2015, Western Australian Marine Stewardship Council Report Series No. 3: West Coast Estuarine Managed Fishery (Area 2: Peel-Harvey Estuary) & Peel-Harvey Estuary Blue Swimmer Crab Recreational Fishery. Department of Fisheries, Western Australia. 284pp
  10. Juanes, F, Hare, JA, and Miskiewicz, AG 1996, Comparing early life history strategies of Pomatomus saltatrix: a global approach Marine and Freshwater Research 47, 365–79.
  11. Leigh, G, O’Neil, MF, Stewart J 2017, Stock assessment of the Australian east coast tailor (Pomatomus saltatrix) fishery, Queensland Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Brisbane, Australia.
  12. Lenanton, RC, Ayvazian, SG, Pearce, AF, Strckis, RA and Young, GC 1996, Tailor (Pomatomus saltatrix) off Western Australia: where does it spawn and how are the larvae distributed? Marine and Freshwater Research, 47, 337–346.
  13. Miskiewicz, AG, Bruce, BD and Dixon, P 1996, Distribution of tailor (Pomatomus saltatrix) larvae along the Coast of New South Wales, Australia, Marine and Freshwater Research, 47, 331–6.
  14. Moreton Bay Seafood Industry Association 2012, Moreton Bay tunnel net fishery code of best practice.
  15. Nurthen, RK, Cameron, R and Briscoe, DA 1992, Population genetics of tailor, Pomatomus saltatrix (Linnaeus) (Pisces: Pomatomidae), in Australia, Marine and Freshwater Research 43, 1481–6.
  16. Queensland Department of Agriculture and Fisheries 2018, Queensland Stock Status Assessment Workshop Proceedings 2018. Species Summaries. 19–20 June 2018, Brisbane.
  17. Ryan, KL, Hall, NG, Lai, EK, Smallwood, CB, Taylor, SM and Wise, BS 2017, State-wide survey of boat-based recreational fishing in Western Australia 2015/16, Fisheries Research Report 287, Department of Fisheries, Western Australian, Perth.
  18. Schnierer, S 2011, Aboriginal fisheries in New South Wales: determining catch, cultural significance of species and traditional fishing knowledge needs, FRDC PROJECT NO. 2009/038, Canberra.
  19. Smith, K, Lewis, P, Brown, J, Dowling, C, Howard, A, Lenanton, R and Molony, B 2013, Status of nearshore finfish stocks in south-western Western Australia Part 2: Tailor, Fisheries Research Report No. 247, Department of Fisheries, Western Australia, Perth.
  20. Stewart, J, Hegarty, A, Young, C, Fowler, AM and Craig, J 2015, Status of Fisheries Resources in NSW 2013-14, NSW Department of Primary Industries, Mosman. 391pp.
  21. Victorian Fisheries Authority Commercial Fish Production Information Bulletin 2017. Victorian Fisheries Authority, Queenscliff, Victoria, Australia.
  22. Ward, TM, Staunton-Smith, J, Hoyle, S and Halliday, IA 2003, Spawning patterns of four species of predominantly temperate pelagic fishes in the sub-tropical waters of southern Queensland Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science, 56, 1125–1140.
  23. Webley, J, McInnes, K, Teixeira, D, Lawson, A and Quinn, R 2015, Statewide Recreational Fishing Survey 2013–14. Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Queensland.
  24. West, LD, Stark, KE, Murphy, JJ, Lyle JM and Doyle, FA 2015, Survey of recreational fishing in New South Wales and the ACT, 2013/14. Fisheries Final Report Series.
  25. Young, GC, Wise, BC, and Ayvazian, SG 1999, A tagging study on tailor, (Pomatomus saltatrix) in Western Australian waters: their movement, exploitation, growth and mortality, Marine and Freshwater Research, 50, 633–42.