*

Blacklip Abalone (2018)

Haliotis rubra rubra

  • Craig Mundy (Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania)
  • Lachlan Strain (Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development, Western Australia)
  • Victorian Fisheries Authority (Victorian Fisheries Authority)
  • Rowan Chick (Department of Primary Industries, New South Wales)
  • Stephen Mayfield (South Australian Research and Development Institute)
  • Ben Stobart (South Australian Research and Development Institute)

You are currently viewing a report filtered by jurisdiction. View the full report.

Toggle content

Summary

Blacklip Abalone is harvested in NSW, SA, TAS and VIC, with twelve management zones. Stocks are sustainable in four zones, depleting in 6 zones and depleted in 2 zones.

Toggle content

Stock Status Overview

Stock status determination
Jurisdiction Stock Fisheries Stock status Indicators
New South Wales New South Wales NSWAF Depleting Catch, CPUE, mean weight, biomass
NSWAF
New South Wales Abalone Fishery (NSW)
Toggle content

Stock Structure

There are substantial difficulties in applying classical stock assessment models to abalone resources, given the possibly large number of stocks in each fishery. In some regions Haliotis rubra rubra also displays spatially variable growth rates and maturity curves. All jurisdictions therefore rely on indicators and empirical performance measures, primarily catch and catch per unit effort (CPUE; as kg of abalone harvested per hour). CPUE from individual fishing events is relevant locally but not indicative of status broadly [Parma et al. 2003], and status of the many populations in a management unit cannot be assumed to be trending in the same direction. Thus, the average CPUE across each spatial reporting unit provides the broader perspective for fishery assessment. The annual catch by Blacklip Abalone fisheries is generally close to the established total allowable commercial catches (TACCs), with little over-catch or under-catch of the TACC. In some jurisdictions, additional fishery-independent data (density, size composition) are available from underwater research surveys.

Toggle content

Stock Status

There are substantial difficulties in applying classical stock assessment models to abalone resources, given the possibly large number of stocks in each fishery. In some regions Haliotis rubra rubra also displays spatially variable growth rates and maturity curves. All jurisdictions therefore rely on indicators and empirical performance measures, primarily catch and catch per unit effort (CPUE; as kg of abalone harvested per hour). CPUE from individual fishing events is relevant locally but not indicative of status broadly [Parma et al. 2003], and status of the many populations in a management unit cannot be assumed to be trending in the same direction. Thus, the average CPUE across each spatial reporting unit provides the broader perspective for fishery assessment. The annual catch by Blacklip Abalone fisheries is generally close to the established total allowable commercial catches (TACCs), with little over-catch or under-catch of the TACC. In some jurisdictions, additional fishery-independent data (density, size composition) are available from underwater research surveys.

Tasmania

The Tasmanian abalone fishery has been quota managed with an annual TACC since 1985, and up to 1999 there was a single Tasmanian TACC that did not differentiate between species or area. In response to increased regional fishing pressure through the late-1990s, separate TACCs for Greenlip Abalone and Blacklip Abalone were implemented in 2000, and the Blacklip Abalone fishery was divided into two zones: Eastern Blacklip, Western Blacklip. In addition, finer-scale reporting of fishing within sub-blocks was introduced. Further spatial partitioning of the Tasmanian Blacklip Abalone fishery occurred in 2001, with the northern areas of the Eastern and Western Zone classified as a Northern Blacklip Zone. In 2003, the Northern Zone was split into two zones (Northern Blacklip and Bass Strait Blacklip) with different size limits. In 2009, the Western Blacklip Zone was split into Western Blacklip and Central West Blacklip zones. In 2013 the boundary between the Western and Central West Blacklip zones was moved northwards.

A live export market established in the early 1990s increasing rapidly to take the majority of the catch by the early 2000s. More than 65 per cent of the total Tasmanian wild abalone harvest is now exported live to Asia, with the remaining fraction processed in canned or frozen form. Since the development of the live export market the beach price for abalone destined for live export has been marginally higher than for processed export markets. This price difference has substantially altered fishery dynamics and created significant assessment and management challenges for the past two decades. Initially the margin between live and processed export product was approximately $2/Kg. In 2017 the beach price for export quality live abalone was almost double the beach price for canned product, exacerbating challenges around avoiding spatially concentrated catch within quota years as fishers, processors and investors seek to maximise profits.

An empirical harvest strategy (HS) was developed for the Tasmanian abalone fisheries in 2014–15 and tested using Management Strategy Evaluation (MSE) [Buxton et al. 2015, Haddon et al. 2014, Haddon and Mundy 2016]. The HS was trialled in the Tasmanian abalone fishery assessment in 2015 and 2016, jointly with the previous ad hoc approach, and used as the basis of TACC decisions in 2017 [Mundy and McAllister 2018]. The HS assesses the fishery performance against target reference points for three performance measures (PM) derived from standardised CPUE (SCPUE) data: current CPUE relative to an agreed target (55th percentile of the annual standardised mean CPUE within the reference period); the four year gradient of CPUE (target gradient is zero); and the per cent change in CPUE in the past year (target change is zero). The reference period is adaptive, including all years from 1992 onwards. A scoring function is applied to the three PMs resulting in a score between zero and 10, where five is the target PM value and zero and 10 are the zone-wide lowest and highest values for that PM within the reference period. In the 2017 assessment, weightings were also applied to the three PMs at 065:0.25:01 respectively, as part of the control rule used to set the TACC from the performance measure scores. The HS is applied individually to each statistical reporting block, and a zone score is obtained from the mean block score weighted by block catch.

The zone target CPUEPM score is used as a proxy for biomass and the zone gradient SCPUE PM score is used as a proxy for fishing mortality. These proxies were developed specifically to meet the requirements of the SAFS assessment and reporting process, as a decision tool for determining when a fishery has transitioned across the threshold between two SAFS categories (e.g. depleting to depleted). However, these are relative indicators (detecting change over time) and are not considered to be indicative of actual biomass.

A target CPUE score of one is used as the limit reference point (LRP) defining the boundary between depleted and depleting for all Tasmanian management units. This LRP is typically five per cent above the lowest CPUE observed within the zone during the reference period. A negative zone gradient score gives evidence that fishing mortality is increasing, and the magnitude of the zone gradient provides some information on the magnitude of fishing mortality. The four year gradient PM score spans a possible range of negative five to positive five, giving a target reference point of zero, defining the boundary between sustainable and transitional–depleting classifications. The combination of a negative CPUE gradient and near-record low CPUE score represents a cautious proxy for the true recruitment overfished reference point. No reporting blocks have become depleted under this decision rule within the reference period, providing a degree of confidence that the LRP will prevent stock collapse, as predicted by MSE testing of the HS.

The draft Tasmanian Abalone Fishery Management Plan requires that size limits be established that protect abalone for two breeding seasons post-reproductive maturity. Research programs to obtain empirical data representing the geographic variability in growth rates and size at reproductive maturity have been underway since 1985, resulting in a range of LML regulations within the Tasmanian Blacklip Abalone fisheries ranging from 110–145 mm.

South Australia

In South Australia, the current harvest strategy in the Management Plan for the commercial abalone fishery [PIRSA 2012] produces a catch weighted determination of stock status for the fishing zone. However, the harvest strategy does not (1) identify performance indicators or reference points for classifying the fishery under the Status of Australian Fish Stocks framework; or (2) deliver a stock status consistent with fishery performance [Burnell et al. 2016, Stobart et al. 2016]. Concerns with the harvest strategy have resulted in a review currently underway. Consequently, in this assessment, a weight-of-evidence approach based on a range of indicators is used. Nominal commercial catch rates (CPUE based on meat weight in the Central and Western Zone management units and shell [whole] weight in the Southern Zone management unit), and densities from fishery-independent surveys, are used as the primary indices of relative South Australia Blacklip Abalone abundance [Burnell et al. 2016, Dowling et al. 2004, Shepherd and Rodda 2001, Stobart et al. 2016, Tarbath et al. 2014].

New South Wales

The New South Wales Abalone Fishery is managed as a jurisdictional stock with a single total allowable commercial catch (TACC), determined by an independent Total Allowable Catch Setting and Review Committee (TACSRC). Assessments rely heavily on fishery-dependent data from commercial fisher’s logbooks, including catch, catch rate (kg/hr) and mean weight (catch divided by the number of individual abalone harvested), summarised at a range of spatial scales. More recent assessments have also utilised estimates of legal-size biomass density (kg/Ha) and productive area of reef (i.e. cumulative area fished in the most recent three years) to estimate legal biomass, derived from fine scale GPS logger data and data from logbooks.

Blacklip Abalone stocks in New South Wales are continuing to recover from historical levels of overfishing and over-depletion [Liggins and Upston 2010, TACSRC 2015, 2017]. Recent measures of stock status indicate substantial recovery with a doubling of legal-size biomass between about 2009 and 2014, followed by a decline since 2015 to a level similar to that in 2012 [TACSRC 2017]. These apparent changes in the status of the stock, together with substantial contrast in historical and recent fishery-dependent measures (notably, catch, biomass and catch rate) provide a basis to infer historical status and reference levels of catch rate (assuming they are comparable) and provide a relative measure of stock abundance through time.

The historical status of stocks, inferred largely from changes in the level of catch rate through time and the overfished status of the stock in the mid-2000s, strongly indicates that stocks were subject to recruitment overfishing and were depleted in the mid-1980s (catch rate less than 20 kg per hour, compared to levels in excess of 30 kg per hour) and that overfishing continued throughout the 1990s to the mid-2000s (catch rate less than 20 kg per hour, with intermittent peaks to less than 25 kg per hour). This period of declining and historically low catch rate occurred during a period of relatively stable catches through the 1990s and a reduction in TACCs during the early-2000s from 305 to 130 tonnes (t). Following a further reduction in TACC to 75 t in 2010, and increases to LMLs, there was a strong recovery in catch rate and mean weight of abalone, particularly from southern areas of the state which provide most of the catch, to levels not previously recorded. In 2010, the catch rate exceeded 30 kg per hour for the first time since the early-1980s and was > 45 kg per hour in 2014. Between 2009 and 2014, estimates of legal-size biomass density (kg per hectare) indicated that there has been a two-fold increase in biomass [TACSRC 2017], and the TACC was incrementally increased to 130 t. On this basis, sustained levels of a catch rate ≤ 30 kg per hour seem appropriate as a reference point below which the stock would be classified as being depleted and recruitment being impaired.

Since 2015, mean weight, catch rate and measures of legal-size biomass from southern areas have shown declines from recent high levels. Estimates of catch rate and legal biomass indicated stocks had declined in 2017 to levels similar to those in 2012 [TACSRC 2017, catch rate ~40 kg per hour). The recent declines in biomass together with changes in catch rate and mean weight from southern areas, indicate current levels of biomass are below a reasonable target for this fishery. Stock declines over the most recent few years can probably be attributed to a combination of continued levels of catch and reduced productivity [TACSRC 2017], resulting in a reduction in abundance in some areas of the coast, particularly north-east facing and historically productive southern coastal areas. This reduction in north-east facing parts of the southern coast is at least partly attributable to extreme sea conditions disturbing habitat and causing mortality in mid-2016. Despite no substantial change in harvest fraction, estimated net production in 2016 and 2017 was close to zero or negative, indicating depletion and overfishing was occurring, whilst productivity between 2010 and 2013 was substantially higher and positive, which supported stock rebuilding for the same harvest fraction [TACSRC 2017].

Additional protection for the fishery has been achieved through several increases in the LML from 100 mm established in 1972, through four increases to 117 mm in 2008, and a proposal to increase the commercial state-wide LML to 119 mm in 2018 and 120 mm in 2019. In the most southern areas of the state, the LML for the commercial fishery was increased to 120 mm in 2010, 123 mm in 2013 and is proposed to increase to 125 mm in 2018.

The distribution of catch is not uniform throughout the state, with that in the northern area typically contributing ≤ 10 per cent of the total annual catch for at least the last decade. Northern stocks were subject to high exploitation rates through the mid- to late-1980s and early-1990s and were further depleted by mortality associated with infection by the parasite Perkinsus sp. [Liggins and Upston 2010, TACSRC 2015] during the 1990s and into the early-2000s. Stocks in this northern area have not demonstrated consistent changes in fishery-dependent data, compared to those generally observed in the south. Relatively low, sporadic catches, together with more variable changes in CPUE and mean weight, likely reflect more isolated fishing events rather than patterns consistent with the northern stock generally [TACSRC 2017].

The evidence presented above indicates that the stock within New South Wales was overfished through the mid-1980s and into the early-2000s. After the early-2000s, management measures supported recovery, as indicated by increases in catch rate and mean weight of abalone in the commercial catch from the mid-2000’s to 2015. Recent performance measures indicate the stocks are being depleted [TACSRC 2017]. Recent changes to management measures (TACC reduced to 100 t) and proposals to increase LMLs in 2018 and 2019, provide greater protection to the fishable biomass. Finalising a fishery harvest strategy continues to be an important goal to provide greater certainty in the determination of fishery status and response of management to future changes in the performance of the fishery. To this end, reference points for primary performance measures, principally catch rate, have been proposed and are reported against in annual New South Wales Abalone Fishery stock assessment reports, together with other performance measures described in the draft harvest strategy.

Since about 2015 biomass has declined but is not yet depleted and recruitment is not yet impaired, however, fishing mortality is too high and moving the stock in the direction of becoming recruitment impaired.

On the basis of the evidence provided above, Blacklip Abalone in New South Wales is classified as a depleting stock.

Toggle content

Biology

Blacklip Abalone biology [Officer 1999, Shepherd 1973, Tarbath et al. 2001, Tarbath and Officer 2003]

Biology
Species Longevity / Maximum Size Maturity (50 per cent)
Blacklip Abalone 20–50 years, 150–220 mm SL  ~ 5 years, 80–130 mm SL  
Toggle content

Distributions

Distribution of reported commercial catch of Blacklip Abalone

Toggle content

Tables

Fishing methods
New South Wales
Commercial
Diving
Indigenous
Diving
Recreational
Diving
Management methods
Method New South Wales
Commercial
Limited entry
Size limit
Spatial closures
Total allowable catch
Indigenous
Native Title
Section 37 (1d)(3)(9), Aboriginal cultural fishing authority
Recreational
Bag limits
Licence
Size limit
Spatial closures
Active vessels
New South Wales
31 in NSWAF
NSWAF
New South Wales Abalone Fishery (NSW)
Catch
New South Wales
Commercial 127.36t in NSWAF
Indigenous Unknown
Recreational Unknown
NSWAF
New South Wales Abalone Fishery (NSW)

New South Wales – Indigenous (Management Methods) (a) The Aboriginal cultural fishing authority is the authority that Indigenous persons can apply to take catches outside the recreational limits under the Fisheries Management Act 1994 (NSW), Section 37 (1d)(3)(9), Aboriginal cultural fishing authority; (b) In cases where the Native Title Act 1993 (Cth) applies fishing activity can be undertaken by the person holding native title in line with S.211 of that Act, which provides for fishing activities for the purpose of satisfying their personal, domestic or non-commercial communal needs. In managing the resource where native title has been formally recognised, the native title holders are engaged with to ensure their native title rights are respected and inform management of the State's fisheries resources.

Victoria Indigenous (Management Methods) In Victoria, regulations for managing recreational fishing may not apply to fishing activities by Indigenous people. Victorian traditional owners may have rights under the Commonwealth's Native Title Act 1993 to hunt, fish, gather and conduct other cultural activities for their personal, domestic or non-commercial communal needs without the need to obtain a licence. Traditional Owners that have agreements under the Traditional Owner Settlement Act 2010 (Vic) may also be authorised to fish without the requirement to hold a recreational fishing licence. Outside of these arrangements, Indigenous Victorians can apply for permits under the Fisheries Act 1995 (Vic) that authorise fishing for specific Indigenous cultural ceremonies or events (for example, different catch and size limits or equipment).

Toggle content

Catch Chart

Commercial catch of Blacklip Abalone - note confidential catch not shown

Toggle content

References

  1. Burnell, O, Mayfield, S and Bailleul, F 2018, Central Zone Greenlip Abalone (Haliotis laevigata) and Blacklip Abalone (H. rubra) fishery in 2017. Report for PIRSA Fisheries and Aquaculture. South Australian Research and Development Institute (Aquatic Sciences), Adelaide. SARDI Publication No. F2007/000611-9. SARDI Research Report Series No. 1003. 84pp.
  2. Burnell, O, Mayfield, S, Ferguson, G and Carroll J 2016, Central Zone Abalone (Haliotis laevigata & H. rubra) Fishery. Fishery Assessment Report for PIRSA Fisheries and Aquaculture. 2016.
  3. Buxton, CD, Cartright, I, Dichmont, C, Mayfield, S and Plaganyi EE 2015, Review of the Harvest Strategy and MCDA process for the Tasmanian Abalone Fishery. Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies.
  4. Dowling, NA, Hall, SJ and McGarvey R 2004, Assessing population sustainability and response to fishing in terms of aggregation structure for Greenlip Abalone (Haliotis laevigata) fishery management. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 2004; 61: 247–259.
  5. Ferguson, G, Mayfield, S and Hogg, A 2018, Status of the Southern Zone Blacklip (Haliotis rubra) and Greenlip (H. laevigata) Abalone Fisheries in 2016/17. Report for PIRSA Fisheries and Aquaculture. South Australian Research and Development Institute (Aquatic Sciences), Adelaide. SARDI Publication No. F2014/000359-3. SARDI Research Report Series No. 985. 29pp.
  6. Gorfine, H, Bell, J, Mills, K, Lewis, Z 2012, Removing sea urchins (Centrostephanus rodgersii) to recover abalone (Haliotis rubra) habitat. Department of Primary Industries, Queenscliff, Victoria, Australia.
  7. Gorfine, H, Day, R, Bardos, D, Taylor, B, Prince J and Sainsbury K 2008, Rapid response to abalone virus depletion in western Victoria: information acquisition and reefcode assessment, final report to the Fisheries Research and Development Corporation, project 2007-066. The University of Melbourne.
  8. Gorfine, H, Taylor, B, Smith, DC. 2002, Abalone – 2001, Fisheries Victoria Assessment Report No 43. Marine and Freshwater Resources Institute, Queenscliff.
  9. Haddon, M, Mayfield, S, Helidoniotis, F, Chick, R and Mundy C 2014, Identification and Evaluation of Performance Indicators for Abalone Fisheries. FRDC Final Report 2007/020. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Hobart
  10. Haddon, M, Mundy C 2016, Testing abalone empirical harvest strategies, for setting TACs and associated LMLs, that include the use of novel spatially explicit performance measures. CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere, Hobart.
  11. Hart A, 2016, Review of fixed sites surveys used by the Victorian Abalone Science Program. Western Australian Fisheries and Marine Research Laboratories. 40pp.
  12. Helidoniotis F and Haddon M 2014, Modelling the potential for recovery of Western Victorian abalone stocks: The Crags. Interim Report to 2012/225. CSIRO, Hobart.
  13. Internal Report: East Coast Abalone Assessment
  14. Liggins G and Upston J 2010. Investigating and managing the Perkinsus-related mortality of Blacklip Abalone in NSW. Final report to the Fisheries Research and Development Corporation for Project No. 2004/084. Industry & Investment – Fisheries Final Report Series No. 120. Cronulla, NSW, Australia. 182pp.
  15. Mayfield, S, McGarvey, R, Gorfine, HK, Peeters, H, Burch, P and Sharma S 2011, Survey estimates of fishable biomass following a mass mortality in an Australian molluscan fishery. Journal of Fish Diseases 2011; 34: 287–302.
  16. Miller, KJ, Maynard, BT, Mundy, CN 2009, Genetic diversity and gene flow in collapsed and healthy abalone fisheries. Molecular Ecology 2009; 18: 200–211.
  17. Mundy C and Jones H 2017, 'Tasmanian Abalone Fishery Assessment 2016', Technical report, Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies Report. University of Tasmania, Hobart, 163.
  18. Mundy, C and McAllister J 2018, Tasmanian Abalone Fishery Assessment 2017. Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies Report. University of Tasmania, Hobart.
  19. Oliver, ECJ, Benthuysen, JA, Bindoff, NL, Hobday, AJ, Holbrook, NJ, Mundy, CN and Perkins-Kirkpatrick SE 2017, The unprecedented 2015/16 Tasman Sea marine heatwave, Nature Communications 8, 1–12.
  20. Oliver, ECJ, Lago, V, Hobday, AJ, Holbrook, NJ, Ling SD and Mundy CN 2018, 'Marine heatwaves off eastern Tasmania: Trends, interannual variability, and predictability', Progress in Oceanography 161, 116–30.
  21. Parma, AM, Orensanz, JM, Elías I and Jerez, G 2003, Diving for shellfish and data: incentives for the participation of fishers in the monitoring and management of artisanal fisheries around southern South America, in Newman, SJ, Gaughan, DJ, Jackson, G, Mackie, MC, Molony, B, St John, J and Kailola, P eds, 'Australian Society for Fish Biology Workshop Proceedings - Towards Sustainability of Data-Limited Multi-Sector Fisheries'. 8–29.
  22. PIRSA 2012, Management Plan for the South Australian commercial abalone fishery. 2012.
  23. Prince, JD, Sellers, TL, Ford, WB, Talbot, SR 1987, Experimental-Evidence for Limited Dispersal of Haliotid Larvae (Genus Haliotis, Mollusca, Gastropoda). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 1987; 106: 243–263.
  24. Shepherd, S and Rodda KR 2001, Sustainability demands vigilance: Evidence for serial decline of the Greenlip Abalone fishery and a review of management. 2001; 20: 829–841.
  25. Shepherd, SA 1973, 'Studies on southern Australian abalone (genus Haliotis) I. Ecology of five sympatric species', Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 24, 217–257.
  26. Size limits and yield for Blacklip Abalone in northern Tasmania. TAFI Technical Report Series, No 17. University of Tasmania, pp37.
  27. Size limits for Greenlip Abalone in Tasmania. TAFI Technical Report Series, No 5. University of Tasmania, pp48.
  28. Stobart, B and Mayfield S 2016, Status of the Western Zone Blacklip Abalone (Haliotis rubra) fishery in 2015. Report for PIRSA Fisheries and Aquaculture. 2016.
  29. Stobart, B, Mayfield, S and Heldt, K 2017, Western Zone Blacklip (Haliotis rubra) and Greenlip (H. laevigata) fisheries in 2016. Report for PIRSA Fisheries and Aquaculture. South Australian Research and Development Institute (Aquatic Sciences), Adelaide. SARDI Publication No. F2017/000331-1. SARDI Research Report Series No. 964. 91pp.
  30. Stobart, B, Mayfield, S and Heldt, K 2018, Western Zone Greenlip Abalone (Haliotis laevigata) and Blacklip Abalone (H. rubra) fisheries in 2017. Report for PIRSA Fisheries and Aquaculture. South Australian Research and Development Institute (Aquatic Sciences), Adelaide. SARDI Publication No. F2017/000331-2. SARDI Research Report Series No. 994. 111pp.
  31. TACSRC 2015, NSW Total Allowable Catch Committee Report and Determination for 2016 – Abalone Fishery. New South Wales Government.
  32. TACSRC 2017, NSW Total Allowable Catch Setting and Review Committee. 2017. Report and Determination 2018 – Abalone Fishery. New South Wales Government.
  33. Tarbath, D and Gardner C 2011, Tasmanian Abalone Fishery Assessment 2010. Tasmanian Aquaculture and Fisheries Institute.
  34. Tarbath, D and Mundy C 2004, Tasmanian Abalone Fishery 2003. Tasmanian Aquaculture and Fisheries Institute.
  35. Tarbath, D, Mundy C and Gardner C 2014, Tasmanian Abalone Fishery Assessment 2013. Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies.
  36. Temby, N, Miller, K, Mundy, C 2007, Evidence of genetic subdivision among populations of blacklip abalone (Haliotis rubra Leach) in Tasmania. Marine and Freshwater Research 2007; 58: 733–742.
  37. VFA 2017a, 2016/17 Victorian Abalone Stock Assessment – Central Zone. Victorian Fisheries Authority Science Report Series No. 2. Victorian Government: Melbourne, 56 pp.
  38. VFA 2017b, 2016/17 Victorian Abalone Stock Assessment – Eastern Zone. Victorian Fisheries Authority Science Report Series No. 3. Victorian Government: Melbourne, 43 pp.
  39. VFA 2017c, 2016/17 Victorian Abalone Stock Assessment – Western Zone. Victorian Fisheries Authority Science Report Series No. 4. Victorian Government: Melbourne, 48 pp.
  40. Victorian Department of Natural Resources and Environment. 1996. Draft abalone management plan. Victorian Fisheries Program. The Department of Natural Resources and Environment: Melbourne.
  41. WADA 2016, Assessment of abalone stocks in Western Zone, Victoria: Submission to the TAC setting process for 2017 November 2016. WADA.